Using JSON RPC to Communicate with Ledger

To query values from the ledger, the web-wallet must issue JSON RPC calls to the Tendermint abci_query endpoint over HTTP, which if running the ledger locally, would look like:


To handle this in the wallet, we can make use of existing functionality from cosmjs, namely, the RpcClient and WebsocketClient.


Over HTTP, using the abci_query endpoint, we can query the ledger by providing a path to the storage value we wish to query. Here are some examples:

  • Query balance: value/#{token_address}/balance/#{owner_address}
  • Query epoch: epoch
  • Is known address?: has_key/#{address}/?

There are many other types of queries in addition to abci_query that can be issued to Tendermint. See for more information.

WebSocket Client

The most interesting type of interaction with the ledger thus far is via WebSockets. The goal of the implementation in anoma-wallet is to allow us to provide listeners so that we can update the React app according to activity on the ledger. The core functionality of the implementation on the client is as follows:

public async broadcastTx(
  hash: string,
  tx: Uint8Array,
  { onBroadcast, onNext, onError, onComplete }: SubscriptionParams
): Promise<SocketClient> {
  if (!this._client) {

  try {
    const queries = [`tm.event='NewBlock'`, `{TxResponse.Hash}='{hash}'`];
        createJsonRpcRequest("broadcast_tx_sync", { tx: toBase64(tx) })

        createJsonRpcRequest("subscribe", {
          query: queries.join(" AND "),
        next: onNext,
        error: onError,
        complete: onComplete,

    return Promise.resolve(this);
  } catch (e) {
    return Promise.reject(e);

There are a few key things happening here. Once we have constructed a transaction, we receive a transaction hash and a Uint8Array containing the bytes of the wrapped and signed transaction. We first execute the request to broadcast_tx_sync, which can take an onBroadcast callback from the client to listen to the initial response from the ledger. We provide the tx data in base64 format as an argument.

Following that, we subcribe to events on the ledger using a query containing tm.event='NewBlock' AND applied.hash='transaction_hash_value', then then register the following listeners so that we may trigger activity in the front-end app:

  • onNext - called when we receive a NewBlock event that matches our hash
  • onError - called in the event of an error
  • onComplete - called when the websocket closes

The way this library in anoma-wallet/src/lib/ is implemented, we can also determine when we want to disconnect the WebSocket. For instance, if for some reason we want to issue a series of transactions in succession, we could feasibly leave the connection open, then close after the final transaction is complete. Alternatively, and in most cases, we would simply close the connection when we are finished with a single transaction, which would then trigger the onComplete callback.

See Transparent Transactions for more information on how the transactions are initially constructed.