Transparent Transactions

Table of Contents

Constructing Transparent Transactions

The web-wallet will need to support many transactions. As the data that gets submitted to the ledger is most easily constructed from anoma types, we perform the assembly of the transaction with in WebAssembly using Rust so that we may natively interact with anoma. The role of wasm in this scenario is to provide two pieces of data to the client (which will handle the broadcasting of the transaction), which are:

  1. hash - the hash of the transaction
  2. data - A byte array of the final wrapped and signed transaction

The following outlines how we can construct these transactions before returning them to the client.

Part 1 - Token Transfer Transactions

There are a few steps involved in creating and signing a transaction:

  1. Create an anoma::proto::Tx struct and sign it with a keypair
  2. Wrap Tx with a anoma::types::transaction::WrapperTx struct which encrypts the transaction
  3. Create a new anoma::proto::Tx with the new WrapperTx as data, and sign it with a keypair (this will be broadcast to the ledger)

1.1 - Creating the anoma::proto::Tx struct

The requirements for creating this struct are as follow:

  • A pre-built wasm in the form of a byte array (this is loaded in the client as a Uint8Array type to pass to the wasm)
  • A serialized anoma::types::token::Transfer object which contains the following:
    • source - source address derived from keypair
    • target - target address
    • token - token address
    • amount - amount to transfer
  • A UTC timestamp. NOTE this is created when calling proto::Tx::new(), however, this is incompatible with the wasm in runtime (time is undefined). Therefore, we need to get a valid timestamp from js_sys:
fn main() {
// anoma-lib/src/

pub fn get_timestamp() -> DateTimeUtc {
    let now = js_sys::Date::new_0();

    let year = now.get_utc_full_year() as i32;
    let month: u32 = now.get_utc_month() + 1;
    let day: u32 = now.get_utc_date();
    let hour: u32 = now.get_utc_hours();
    let min: u32 = now.get_utc_minutes();
    let sec: u32 = now.get_utc_seconds();

    let utc = Utc.ymd(year, month, day).and_hms(hour, min, sec);

Creating the types::token::Transfer struct to pass in as data:

In wasm:

fn main() {
// anoma-lib/src/

let transfer = token::Transfer {
    source: source.0,
    target: target.0,
    token: token.0.clone(),

// The data we pass to proto::Tx::new
let data = transfer
    .expect("Encoding unsigned transfer shouldn't fail");

In Anoma CLI:

Creating and signing the proto::Tx struct

In wasm:

fn main() {
// anoma-lib/src/types/

impl Tx {
    pub fn new(tx_code: Vec<u8>, data: Vec<u8>) -> proto::Tx {
        proto::Tx {
            code: tx_code,
            data: Some(data),
            timestamp: utils::get_timestamp(),

NOTE Here we provide a work around to an issue with proto::Tx::new() in wasm - instead of calling the method directly on Tx, we create a new implementation that returns a proto::Tx, with the timestamp being set using js_sys in order to make this wasm-compatible.

In Anoma CLI:

1.2 - Creating the anoma::types::transaction::WrapperTx struct

The requirements for creating this struct are as follows:

  • A transaction::Fee type, which contains:
    • amount - the Fee amount
    • token - the address of the token
  • epoch - The ID of the epoch from query
  • gas_limit - This contains a u64 value representing the gas limit
  • tx - the proto::Tx type we created earlier.

In wasm:

fn main() {
// anoma-lib/src/types/

    transaction::Fee {
        token: token.0,

NOTE Here we can directly invoke WrapperTx::new, so we only need to concern ourselves with convering the JavaScript-provided values into the appropriate types.

In Anoma CLI:

1.3 - Create a new Tx with WrapperTx and sign it

Here we create a WrapperTx type, and with that we create a new Tx type (our wrapped Tx type) with the WrapperTx as the data, and empty vec![] for code, and a new timestamp, and then we sign it.

In wasm:

fn main() {
// anoma-lib/src/types/ -> sign()

        .try_to_vec().expect("Could not serialize WrapperTx")

We can summarize a high-level overview of the entire process from the anoma-lib/src/types/ implementation:

fn main() {
let source_keypair = Keypair::deserialize(serialized_keypair)?;
let keypair = key::ed25519::Keypair::from_bytes(&source_keypair.to_bytes())
    .expect("Could not create keypair from bytes");

let tx = Tx::new(

let wrapper_tx = WrapperTx::new(

let hash = wrapper_tx.tx_hash.to_string();
let wrapper_tx = WrapperTx::sign(wrapper_tx, &keypair);
let bytes = wrapper_tx.to_bytes();

// Return serialized wrapped & signed transaction as bytes with hash
// in a tuple:
Ok(Transaction {

In Anoma CLI:

Part 2 - Initialize Account Transaction

Constructing an Initialize Account transaction follows a similar process to a transfer, however, in addition to providing a tx_init_account wasm, we need to provide the vp_user wasm as well, as this is required when constructing the transaction:

fn main() {
// anoma-lib/src/

let vp_code: Vec<u8> = vp_code.to_vec();
let keypair = &Keypair::deserialize(serialized_keypair.clone())
    .expect("Keypair could not be deserialized");
let public_key = PublicKey::from(keypair.0.public.clone());

let data = InitAccount {
    vp_code: vp_code.clone(),

Following this, we will pass data into to our new transaction as before, along with tx_code and required values for WrapperTx, returning the final result in a JsValue containing the transaction hash and returned byte array.

Submitting Transparent Transactions

See RPC for more information on HTTP and WebSocket RPC interaction with ledger.