Example: TestCircuit in IR

We describe how the full workflow working with the test circuit given in circuit.rs:465.

First, the IR file is as follows.

// circuit.pir
range[2^6] a
range[2^5] b
pub c = a + b
pub d = a * b
pub f = (fixed_base_scalar_mul e)

Above, we have to use "(...)" to force a gate expression in the current grammar since it is vague to the parser what is a gate vs what is a poly.

Note that the base for the gate fixed_base_scalar_mul is fixed to be generator by the backend, where


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
let (x, y) = P::AFFINE_GENERATOR_COEFFS;
let generator = GroupAffine::new(x, y);
}

Compile

To compile, we can run

pir compile circuit.pir -op circuit.prover.bin -ov circuit.verifier.bin

The two binary files stores the necessary data and metadata for the prover and the verifier.

Output wires

During compilation, the backend should realize that wires c, d, f are output wires, meaning they are derivable given values of a, b, e.

Proof generation

Since the only non-output wires are a, b, e, one should be able to generate a proof by specifying the following two JSON files.

The public input table PI.json is actually empty, since all public wires are output wires and can be computed by the backend during prover runtime.

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mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.02778</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" 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style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span 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style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span 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style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">‘‘‘</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.13889</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7224em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.13889em;">T</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" 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class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.6542em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">tt</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span 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class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.01968</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span 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style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.13889</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7224em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.13889em;">W</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">.</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.05724</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.854em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.05724em;">j</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord 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class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.01968</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord 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class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">es</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord 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style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord 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style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span 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class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ce</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.1667</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord 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style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">b</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" 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mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">roo</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mord">.</span><span class="mord mathnormal">bin</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7667em;vertical-align:-0.0833em;"></span><span class="mord">−</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.13889em;">P</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.07847em;">I</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.13889em;">P</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.07847em;">I</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">v</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mord">.</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.05724em;">j</span><span class="mord mathnormal">so</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mord">‘‘‘</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.13889em;">T</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ab</span><span class="mord mathnormal">o</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">v</span><span class="mord mathnormal">eco</span><span class="mord mathnormal">mman</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">o</span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mopen">(</span><span class="mord">1</span><span class="mclose">)</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">abina</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">ry</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">eco</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ainin</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">Pl</span><span class="mord mathnormal">o</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03148em;">nk</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">roo</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mopen">(</span><span class="mord">2</span><span class="mclose">)</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ab</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mord mathnormal">b</span><span class="mord mathnormal">o</span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord">.</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.05724em;">j</span><span class="mord mathnormal">so</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mord">‘.</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.13889em;">T</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ab</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.13889em;">P</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.07847em;">I</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">v</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mord">.</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.05724em;">j</span><span class="mord mathnormal">so</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">o</span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mord mathnormal">o</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02691em;">w</span><span class="mord mathnormal">co</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ain</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">eco</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">v</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mord mathnormal">eso</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mpunct">,</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mpunct">,</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">‘</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mord">‘.‘‘‘</span></span></span></span></span>// PI-verifier.json, after proof generation
{
  "c": 25,
  "d": 100,
  "f": .. // representation of the group element 2 * g, where g is the fixed base
}

Proof verification

To verify a proof, we can run the following command to determine the validity of a proof.

<span class="katex"><span class="katex-html" aria-hidden="true"><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7778em;vertical-align:-0.0833em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ka</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">x</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">pl</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ka</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">x</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7778em;vertical-align:-0.0833em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ka</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">x</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7778em;vertical-align:-0.0833em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ia</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.6944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">hi</span><span class="mord mathnormal">dd</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ba</span><span class="mord mathnormal">se</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">u</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.8889</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">v</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">n</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">−</span><span class="mord">0.1944</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.6986em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span 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style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.03588</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">v</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span 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style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.02778</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" 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style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.10764</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" 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class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">yc</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord 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class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.6986em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.02778</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.6986em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.10764</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.10764em;">f</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord 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style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.02778</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span 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style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">bin</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" 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class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.13889</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7224em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.13889em;">P</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.07847</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7224em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.07847em;">I</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ss</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">a</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ce</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.2222</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord 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class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.02778</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.1667em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">er</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span 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style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">in</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span><span class="mbin">−</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2222em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">r</span><span class="mord mathnormal">i</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">g</span><span class="mord mathnormal">h</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">:</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">0.10764</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mord mathnormal">m</span><span class="mpunct">;</span><span class="mspace" 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style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">roo</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">d</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal">hn</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.02778em;">or</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">t</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.03588em;">y</span><span class="mord mathnormal" style="margin-right:0.01968em;">l</span><span class="mord mathnormal">e</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">=</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord">&quot;</span><span class="mord mathnormal">ma</span><span class="mord 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class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.5782em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord">.</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.7335em;vertical-align:-0.0391em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">bin</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:0.8889em;vertical-align:-0.1944em;"></span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mord mathnormal">c</span><span class="mord 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style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord mathnormal">p</span><span class="mord mathnormal">an</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span><span class="mrel">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="mspace" style="margin-right:0.2778em;"></span></span><span class="base"><span class="strut" style="height:1em;vertical-align:-0.25em;"></span><span class="mord">/</span><span class="mord mathnormal">s</span><span class="mord 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